In the U.S. there are several means to prevent the removal of re-abduction of a child:
– the child’s passport(s) to be deposited with authorities
– the alleged abductor’s passport to be deposited with authorities
– obtaining orders toe prevent the removal of the child
– issuing border and/or port alerts
– requiring the alleged abductor to pay a bond/deposit
– temporary placement of child in institutional care
– entering a child into the Children’s Passport Issuance Alert Program (CPIAP).
This seems to be a very strong and practical approach to preventing child abductions, which other countries could take as an example.